A Developmental Perspective on Conflicts in South-Eastern Europe
Valentin Cojanu, Alina Irina Popescu
Most economists still thought in the 1980s that development could be accurately depicted in the variants of GDP indicators. Then, the United Nations Development Programme’s broader perspective on development enriched the analytical process with an approach based on human capabilities and social context that are needed for a decent standard of living. The world-wide states of conflict in the contemporary international economy, including the post-communist evolutions in the Balkans have made clear that the realm of human development goes further. The analysis evolves against the background of economic, social and political evolutions in the former communist countries of South East Europe. The research expands the core concept of “weak states” to understand the transformations of national economies and to suggest policy actions for a prosperous area of development in the Balkans.
Keywords: development, post-communist evolution, Security, South East Europe
Origin, Development and Perspectives for the Human Security Concept in the European Union
Karina Paulina Marczuk
The wide economic support and an attempt to guarantee safety, which the European governments are trying to provide for their citizens, are reasons why the European Union explores new directions of conducting common policies for which the most important is the human being and his needs. The European security policy – and the new concept of human security – could be one example of the EU`s new behavior. Taking into consideration the previous attempts at developing security theories in Europe and other countries, it is possible to state that the modern human security doctrine in the EU could be followed by creating a special kind of European corps which would be a new tool for ensuring security where it would be necessary to provide it – European Gendarmerie Forces (known as EGF or EUROGENDFOR). The aim of this article is to show the impact of the evolution of the modern security theories for creating a human security doctrine in the framework of the European Union. Moreover, genesis and activity of the EGF are presented and the author is trying to answer the question: could the EGF be a tool of human security in the EU?. Finally, a couple of proposals for the future development of the European security policy are mentioned.
Keywords: European Gendarmerie Forces, European security, European Union, human security
The Regional Cooperation in the Enlarged European Union – towards a United and More Competitive Europe
The enlarged European Union encompasses regions characterized by a diversified level of socio-economic development and innovation. The Community cohesion policy contributes to a harmonious and balanced development of the European territory, and the assistance in support of cross-border cooperation, as well as transnational and interregional cooperation is offered through the Community Initiative INTERREG III. The article presents the innovation potential of the border regions of the Western and Southern Poland. It is not sufficient in the light of the presented indicators, and it is necessary to take up measures aiming at its development. The Polish accession to the EU has brought along new possibilities in terms of supporting cross-border cooperation, as well as transnational and interregional one, in the years 2004-2006. Also, in the new programming period for the years 2007-2013, emphasis has been given to the need for promoting this direction of activity, while pointing at the same time to the importance of innovation, since innovation constitutes a key factor of economic growth and of enhancing competitiveness of European regions.
Keywords: cohesion policy, European Territorial Cooperation, innovation, INTERREG Initiative, region
Some Normative and Institutional Developments in the Field of Common Agricultural Policy and their Consequences on the Protection of the European Citizens’ Interests
Gabriela Alexandra Oanţă
This paper intends to briefly comment on some changes in the field of Common Agricultural Policy, especially regarding the safety of agricultural products and foodstuff. Within the framework of the CAP the food safety has managed to progressively constitute its third pillar, currently boasting an outstanding place in the attainment of its objectives. CAP has been progressing in its mechanisms and legal instruments towards a more relevant integration of the concerns relative to the consumer’s health protection and to the food safety in the objectives to be reached.
Keywords: agriculture, Common Agricultural Policy, food safety, protection
Harmonized Europe or European Harmony?
Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?
Keywords: competition, economic integration, economic model, institutions
« Culture 2000 », mise en place d’une politique culturelle
The program « Culture 2000 » that started being applied from 2000 is the first framework program in the cultural area at European level l. The qualitative jump that this framework program represents as regards the previous programs make us analyze the advances it brings, its role and place within the European Union cultural policy and its contribution in establishing an European identity. Thus, in the first part the article speaks about the implementation steps of this program, about its range and objectives in order to focus upon in the second part on the role that the European cultural dimension can play, trough this framework program, in defining an European identity.
Keywords: cultural politics, culture, European identity