Reflections on the Future of the EU Budget, with Special Reference to the Position of the Net Beneficiary Countries
Starting with individual households through large companies to countries, the preparation of the budget belongs to the most critical tasks and policy areas. It is not enough to agree on general objectives but consensus has to be created also concerning the disposable amount of money and, not less importantly, its adequate distribution among different priorities. Both the identification of objectives and the character of the compromising process largely exceed the area of direct economic issues. Annual and multi-annual budgets provide an excellent picture of the capacity of the society to think in interdisciplinary context and of its ability to reach reasonable compromises.
Keywords: budget reform, EU budget, multiannual financial package, net beneficiaries, redistribution
Challenges of the Path towards an Enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe – Inequality and Social Exclusion
“Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.
Keywords: EU integration, poverty, social inclusion
Can Self Determination Solve the Kashmir Dispute?
Amir A. Majid
Rather than looking inwards and nursing exclusively European interests, one of the recent laudable actions of the European Parliament has been its focus on the tragic fate of Kashmiris. The Parliament has decided that it ought to help humanity by contributing to the end of this festering dispute, categorised as “A Dynamite under the South Asian Peace.” In this article the author examines the genesis of the Kashmir dispute and, using his expertise in International Law, scrutinises various arguments surrounding this dispute. The upshot of his analysis is that the Master Anomaly in the arguments is that deniers of self determination to Kashmiris wish to eclipse the “rule of law”, and avoid applying the partition rules (patently regulating the division of the Indian subcontinent on religious lines). They hijack the discussion to secularism and democracy in India versus military rule and religious fundamentalism in Pakistan – clearly post-partition developments. The Master Anomaly has clouded the legal force of the UN resolutions and the legal effect of binding pledges of the competent heads of State, undermining the ”pacta sunt servanda” principle.
Keywords: European Parliament, human rights organizations, Kashmir, pioneers of Indian liberation
Principle of Human Rights Protection in view of Berlin Declaration
Oana – Măriuca Petrescu
„[….] His dignity is inviolable. His rights are inalienable. Women and men enjoy equal rights. [….] We preserve in the European Union the identities and diverse traditions of its Member States. We are enriched by open borders and a lively variety of languages, cultures and regions. […] The European Union will continue to promote democracy, stability and prosperity beyond its borders”.
Thus, Declaration of Berlin on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the signature of the Treaties of Rome, as it was signed on 25th of March 2007 by all 27 members of European Union, is providing among others the principles and values based on respect of fundamental rights, common traditions of the member states, as well as promoting the variety of languages, cultures and regions within the EU. The European Union stresses out again its intention to protect the freedoms of citizens and their civil rights by all possible means, including in front of the courts.
Keywords: European Union, human rights, protection of human rights