Institutions européennes, cartels de partis nationaux et développement des partis européens : que révelent les débats sur les reglements 2001 et 2003?
The relevance of supranational parties in the European political life represents an increasing concern among practitioners and researchers. Their attributed place represents an important aspect of that problem. Based upon the current literature, this article wants to proceed to an institutional analysis of the 2001 and 2003 Regulations focusing upon the debate regarding the statute, financing and functions of the European parties. We will prove that the European institutions have permitted considerable advances regarding the statute and financing while they have stopped the progress as regards the functions, for instance, of electoral representation. Finally, our analysis will permit us to evaluate the attitudes of various European institutional actors, to diversify and refine the thesis of « national parties’ cartel » and to confirm the importance of the problem of the deficit of partisan representation within the European Union.
Keywords: Nice Treaty, Maastricht Treaty, European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party, European Federation of Green Parties, Democratic Party of Europe’s peoples – European Free Alliance, European People’s Party; European Socialist Party
Does the EU Have a Future?
Sir William Nicoll
While trying to give an answer to the question whether the European Union indeed has a future, the author analyzes the main stages of the integration process and examines past procedures and mechanisms in order to support his fundamental assumption that, because the EU is now so closely integrated, a “disunion” is unthinkable.
Keywords: accession , European Union, integration
Science: A Race without a Finish. The Position of Europe
This paper addresses the fundamentals of our knowledge-based society, with a particular view to the emerging new knowledge initiatives in the European Union. After a discussion of the current R&D investment trends in Europe, several flaws in the European knowledge system and in the European Research Area (ERA) are highlighted. The need for a drastic improvement of frontier research (i.e. excellence-driven research) and for a better coordination of the great many research initiatives in the widening European Union is emphasized. A drastic change is needed in order to cope with the fragmentation and the sometimes low R&D intensity in the ERA. The paper concludes with a presentation of a recent meta-analysis which demonstrates the importance of public expenditures for education and research, based on a comparative analysis of 123 applied studies on the impact of government expenditures for knowledge investments on economic growth.
Keywords: European Research Area, research and development
Quel acces au juge pour protéger les droits fondamentaux dans l’Union européenne?
This article has as ambition to open the debate regarding the new role of human rights promoter assumed by the European Union within the context of adoption of the Charter of fundamental rights. The object of this article is to analyze the efficiency and the effectiveness of the Community jurisdictional mechanism by comparing with the objective of guaranteeing the fundamental rights, found within the Charter, from the point of view of the relations between the EU and the Member States. The European Union needs a structural reform of its jurisdictional system from the point of view of the most important guarantee regarding the respect of fundamental rights, the right to access to a judge.
Keywords: Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union, fundamental rights
Negotiations on Accession and Implementation of the EU Common Agricultural Policy: The Slovak Experience
The accession of the 10 countries in May 2004 became possible on the basis of successful negotiations, which were on the national level handled by experts and politicians working together with the common aim to join the Europe of better options for the future. Agriculture plays an important role in the economic and political life of many of these countries. Following the successful negotiation process, the Slovak farmers, for example, have now the possibility to benefit from larger envelope of financial support which will help them in the transformation process, but essential for the future will be their own initiative in order to increase their competitiveness not only in the area of prices, but also quality of agricultural products. The future of the effective Slovak agriculture and higher quality of rural life is based on the shift of its orientation towards ecological and multifunctional agriculture.
Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy, EU accession, Slovakia