The Foreign and Security Policies of the European Union
In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.
Keywords: crisis, European Defence Community, Foreign and Security Policy, security policy
Towards an Eu Strategic Concept
The article ‘Towards an EU Strategic Concept’ examines the state of the EU’s foreign and security policy after the Iraq war and after publication of both the Convention’s draft constitutional proposals and Mr Solana’s European security strategy paper. It suggests that while the Iraq war caused considerable damage to the EU there is now a desire to move forward as evidenced by the welcome all member states gave to the Solana paper at the European Council meeting in Thessalonika. There remains much work to be done and there are difficult choices ahead, especially in the EU’s relations with the United States.
Keywords: Petersberg Tasks
The Convention, the Draft Constitution and External Relations: Effects and Implications for the EU and its International Role
This article reviews the likely effects and implications of the draft EU Constitution on external relations. One of the most potentially significant reforms is the suggested adoption by the EU of legal personality. This may well open up the possibility of developing an EU wide diplomatic service, beyond that of the current External Service, to assist the EU Foreign Minister. It is argued that more thought is necessary on consistency and coherence in external relations, especially how the various actors should relate to one another. The potential relationship between the EU Foreign Minister and the President of the European Council are of particular relevance. It is also argued that the sections pertaining to defence are likely to be immensely controversial in the forthcoming IGC and should be rethought since the value added of adopting an interim mutual defence commitment is far from evident. It is also less than clear that a solidarity clause for threats emanating from non-state sources, marks a significant advance. Finally, the inclusion of a possible European Armaments, Research and Military Capabilities Agency in the draft constitution is welcome in principle, but it is questioned whether this belongs in the constitution.
Keywords: competence, European Security and Defence Policy, external relations, High Representative, international agreement
What is at Stake for Romania in the Process of European Integration?
Economists consider the social impact of the economic phenomena from a somewhat detached analytical perspective. This article argues that the process of economic integration Romania is pursuing requires instead a more compassionate approach as the social burden looms large enough not to be ignored. Romania is not in the position to capitalize in the short run on the economic or political advantages of the EU enlargement. As this argument suggests, the energy and economic policies should be directed in the near future to alleviate the consequences of declining gains from trade and to improve the existing capacity to increasingly compete in similar industries. The road to periphery with its associated effects of economic dualism and widespread poverty does not necessarily imply a geographic location, but failure to profitably take part in regional economic development.
Keywords: competitiveness, complementary trade, Production location, production location, social consequence
Progress and Obstacles in the Area of Justice and Home Affairs in an Enlarging Europe
Joanna Apap, Sergio Carrera
This article makes an assessment of the legislative achievements made so far of the objectives set by the Amsterdam Treaty and the Tampere European Council. A number of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) policy areas have experienced a major degree of development or convergence more than others. Why? This is a most sensitive field of study, which has been until now guarded very much as an area primarily of national sovereignty or where sovereignty issues could be at stake. The existence of frictions and strains can be considered as the main justification for this to happen. The way in which certain frictions between member states have affected the implementation of policy as well as how these may be further exacerbated by the forthcoming enlargement will be equally analyzed. The article is divided into two main parts: the evaluation of the main progress in implementing the Tampere Scoreboard on the eve of enlargement, as well as the analysis of the reasons why some JHA policy areas have not achieved the expected level of development.
Keywords: Asylum, Corruption, Immigration, judicial cooperation, Police practices, third-country nationals